The Effect Of Climate Change On Vector-Borne Diseases: A New Perspective From Two Different Disciplines
Keywords:Vector-borne disease, climate change, public health
Geoclimatic changes are explained through changes in land and ocean temperatures, sea level and acidity, precipitation patterns and wind patterns, land characteristics and use, soil conditions and extreme weather events (heavy rains, floods, extreme wind events, heat waves, and drought). are long-term statistical changes in weather that were triggered by human activities before the industrial revolution and gained momentum from the mid-19th century to become the most important public health problem of the 21st century. stated that the global average surface temperature increased by 0.99 ◦C (0.84-1.10 ◦C) in the 2001-2020 period and by 1.09 ◦C (0.95-1.20 ◦C) in the 2011-2020 period. Climate change directly affects health in terms of long-term precipitation and temperature, climatic extremes (temperature fluctuations, hurricanes, flash floods), air quality, sea level rise in coastal areas, multifaceted effects on food production systems and water resources. The SARS CoV epidemic, one of the most dangerous subspecies of the Coronavirus family, which is seen among the most devastating epidemics in the history of the world and constitutes the most important agenda for humanity, occurred in 2003, causing 8000 infected individuals to be recorded worldwide and more than 700 of them to die. MERS-CoV is another type of coronavirus that first occurred in 2012, causing 858 deaths with nearly 3000 cases. The new type of Coronavirus (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019, was defined in January 2020 and entered the medical literature, and was declared a "pandemic" by the World Health Organization as of March 11, 2020. Animals, including bats, are a reservoir for many viruses and are known to be a severe conduit for the emergence of the Ebola epidemic, as well as acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus 1, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), and COVID-19. Habitat degradation is the main driver of biodiversity loss, and climate change can play a role in changing the geographic range of species by forcing species to change their habitat. As species changed habitats, these animals became closer to humans and farm animals, which then acted as a tool to start a global epidemic. More extreme conditions have occurred in the Chinese city of Wuhan, the epicenter of the COVID-19 pandemic, where bats and anteaters (vectors that have recently emerged as anteaters for the transmission of viruses) are located in crowded open markets at very close range and often in very poor conditions for coronaviruses. are claimed to be vectors. Emerging evidence supports the encroachment of animal habitats in our climate-changing world, which can affect health and risk of infectious disease, and urgent efforts are needed to limit climate change so that future new pandemics can be averted. Ultimately, the role of vector-borne diseases (VBD) transmission involves a number of factors, including the impact of climate, which is not yet fully understood. Climate change represents a major threat to the range, duration and spread of vector-borne diseases. Therefore, clarification of the role of climate is crucial as it facilitates epidemic risk analysis and aids preventive efforts. With future epidemiological studies, models should be created to examine the time series of vector-borne disease in which mean, maximum and minimum temperature, relative humidity and precipitation are statistically associated with the number of cases, and it should be proven which climate change effect is the strongest factor on VBD.